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Section 4: Logical Design
Introduction
In this section we will explore the three stages of logical design. It is assumed for the purposes of this tutorial that the Requirements Definition phase of the DSSD lifecycle has been largely completed, and that the outputs and inputs to a program have been identified.

The DSPD program design method which follows can be used with any methodology, as long as the outputs and inputs to a program have been previously defined.

Output Prototypes
You will recall that the most fundamental principle of the Warnier/Orr methodology is that development must be output oriented. In program design, this means that understanding the output is crucial to the correct development of the program. Therefore the first stage of DSPD is the development of a sample of the output. This is often known as a "prototype" or a "model."

Different types of outputs may require different levels of prototyping, however one aspect all prototypes share: they show real data--real names, real numbers, real calculations. This is an important concept. Too often in the past the client receiving an output never saw real data on the output until AFTER the program was already written. And it is one of the oldest cliche_s in the industry that clients always make changes to outputs whenever they see them for the first time. It is highly preferable to know about those "changes" before the program is developed the first time. Also, the ability to develop the sample of the output "by hand" demonstrates that the program developer knows what the program will have to do.

There are three levels of output prototypes.

1) Static Prototypes: A "picture" of an output. This is best suited to outputs which do not "move" such as reports or inquiry screens.

2) Dynamic Prototypes: A "movie" of an output. This is best suited to outputs which change over time, such as a series of screens in an on-line conversation. While simulating the operation of an output, a dynamic prototype doesn't actually "work." For that, we need one final level of prototype.

3) Working Model: A scaled down version of the intended system. In other words, it allows some user input and will reflect that input in the outputs that are produced. Great caution should be used in developing working models, however: there is a great temptation to try to "refine" them into being the finished system (and then you are right back to traditional iterative development--which we know doesn't work very well). A working model should be developed only in the absence of stable requirements: once the requirements become stable the model should be abandoned and the development effort should proceed normally.

Once the output prototype has been completed and the client who will receive the output has seen and approved the prototype, we will begin to formally gather some information about the output and its program design.

(In practice, this is not necessarily a linear process...as part of the development of the prototype the information gathered in the following stages may be collected informally and documented in the manner indicated. This information may in fact help the developer to create the finished prototype. However, the information gathered is not finalized until after the prototype is approved. So there.)


Output Requirements
The "Output Requirements" requires the program developer to ask the following questions (and document them in an appropriate manner and location, generally on an Output Requirements Form).

1) Output Name: The name of the output.
2) Client Name: The name of the person inside the organization who receives the output and must be satisfied with it's content. The person (or other system) which will "use" the output.
3) Purpose/Use: A brief description of the use of the data on the output.
4) Production Frequency: A statement as to how often the output will be produced. Generally expressed as some kind of event (such as "Month End").
5) Currency: A statement as to how current is the data present on the output. Also generally expressed as some kind of event.

Also some physical output characteristics are generally captured, such as...
6) Volume: How large (voluminous) is the output anticipated to be?
7) Response Time: How quickly must the output be presented to the client after it is produced?
8) Media: What media is the output produced on?

Also captured for each output...
9) Sorting Sequence: For each data element used to sequence the data on the output, the name of the element is documented, as well as it's position in the sort (i.e., first, second, third, etc.) and it's order (ascending or descending).
10) Selection Criteria: For each grouping of data on the output (for each logical set of data present on the output), the selection criteria for that set is documented, as are any data element(s) which must be present in the data base to achieve that selection. In other words, if data is to be grouped on the output by Customer the selection criteria answers the question: "of all customers ever known to the organization, which customers belong on this output?" If, for instance, only "preferred customers" are to be presented on the output, one would document that fact, along with the fact that a "Preferred Customer Indicator" must also be present in some form in the data.

Also captured if necessary...
11) Miscellaneous Requirements: If any other information is learned about the output which does not fit into any of the above classifications, it is noted. These miscellaneous requirements may or may not impact the program design or the data base design, but they are captured here so that they may be reviewed later as part of quality assurance (to determine if they do indeed have an impact on the systems design, or just seemed to be an interesting fact at the time).

Output Requirements Form:




Sample Output Requirements Form:

Output Definition
The "Output Definition Form" asks the program developer to gather some detailed information about the data on the output, and about the nature and groupings of that data. It is used to build the logical design (the LOS, LDS, and LOM discussed in the following sections).

To begin with, the output prototype is inspected and all so-called "physical data" is eliminated from immediate consideration. For each piece of data we ask the question: "If the input and/or output devices change, would that data still be present on the output?" If the answer is yes, chances are that the data is "logical" output data, and will be appropriate to analyze for the logical design. If the answer is no (the presence of the data depends on the input and/or output device) then the analysis of the data will be postponed until physical design.

In other words, we would like to analyze only the "core" of data present on the output regardless of the input and output devices. This data conveys the real "meaning" of the output (if that data is not present, the person on system which receives the output could not put it to the use intended).

Once this logical core group of elements has been determined, the following information is captured for each logical data element on the output:

1) Data Element Name: The name of the fact or data item. Usually the name has two parts: <set name>+<attribute>. The set name is a qualifier which says which real-world actor, commodity, message, relationship, or event the element is a fact about. The attribute part names the kind of data: whether it is a "name," an "amount," a "value," etc. Good names therefore would be names such as "Customer Name," "Vendor Number," and "Invoice Total." Poor element names lack either or both parts: "Warehouse," "Description," and "Grand Total" are all poor data element names, for example.

2) Appearance Frequency: How often the data element appears on the output. Expressed in the form "Once per <some logical set>," as in "1/Company," "1/Division," or "1/Invoice." The data element must always appear once and only once for each member of the logical set named, or the frequency is incorrect (i.e., the frequency cannot be "0 or 1 per Customer" but should instead be "1/Preferred Customer"; similarly the frequency cannot be "1 to many times per Customer" but should instead be "1/Invoice").

3) Local Element Type: Using just this output as a guide (and not knowledge of any other outputs or knowledge of the actual input), determine whether the element is:

3a) A Label: The data is the name of a "column" or "row" on the output. In general, labels are descriptions of the data on the output which do not change from one instance of the output to another.

3b) Computed: In examining the output, the data is clearly computed from data present on the output (or strongly inferred by the data on the output).

3c) Required as Input: The contents of the data must be supplied in order for the output to be produced (note that this does NOT imply that the data is on the actual input file...it says that the logical mapping needs the data to produce the output).

Label elements are flagged with "L", computed elements with "C", and required elements with "*" on the Output Definition Form.

For Computed Data Elements, the following is also captured:

Calculation Rule(s): Each calculation rule which is used to manipulate the contents of the data element is documented, along with the frequency that the rule must be applied. For example, "Company Total" might have two calculation rules: 1) Move Zero to Company Total and 2) Add Customer Total to Company Total. Rule 1 has a frequency of once per Company; rule 2 has a frequency of once per Customer. The calculation rules and the calculation frequencies are documented on the Output Definition Form.

For Required as Input elements, we also capture:

Input (or Change) Frequency: How often does the contents of the data element change (which is the same as asking how often does the element have to be supplied as input to be able to produce the output). 

Note that this input frequency is generally the same as the output frequency gathered earlier, except for sorting data which is output more frequently than its contents change (for example, when listing Invoice Date for many invoices within a customer, the output frequency for Invoice Date is once per invoice; its input frequency is once per Invoice Day, assuming invoices are sorted by date--in other words, if 1000 invoices are printed for one customer, the Invoice Date will appear 1000 times on the output, but will only change 5 times if only five day's worth of invoices are represented on the output).



Output Definition Form




Sample Output Definition Form



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